The Tech Behind Eon: Scene Player
This post describes the Amiga player for packed 3D scenes in our A500 demo Eon.
We have an offline packer for 3D scenes. Just like the packer, the player required many iterations to perform well enough to allow us to create the visuals we were after.
We have two versions of the scene-player; a 50fps 1-bitplane version and a 25fps 3-bitplane version. This text describes the 3-bitplane version.
We use four buffers for rendering:
- Decode scene data + render lines
The clear and blitter-fill are performed by a pair of interrupt-driven blits. Line drawing is done using the CPU. The buffers are rotated every 2nd frame.
The clearing and blitter fill are straightforward; the interesting bits happen during scene data decoding and line rendering.
Scene data format
Each frame consists of a number of line strips. A line strip is N+1 points that form a sequence of N lines. Here is one such line strip:
Num points in line strip: 18 Full point: 0,179 Full point: 0,90 - mask 0x1 Delta point: 27,83 (delta 27,-7) - mask 0x1 Delta point: 35,88 (delta 8,5) - mask 0x1 Full point: 77,85 - mask 0x4 Delta point: 94,76 (delta 17,-9) - mask 0x2 Delta point: 93,82 (delta -1,6) - mask 0x2 Delta point: 85,83 (delta -8,1) - mask 0x2 Delta point: 97,101 (delta 12,18) - mask 0x5 Delta point: 93,113 (delta -4,12) - mask 0x2 Delta point: 102,121 (delta 9,8) - mask 0x2 Delta point: 101,130 (delta -1,9) - mask 0x2 Delta point: 83,127 (delta -18,-3) - mask 0x2 Delta point: 52,133 (delta -31,6) - mask 0x2 Delta point: 51,137 (delta -1,4) - mask 0x1 Full point: 5,156 - mask 0x1 Full point: 93,179 - mask 0x1 Full point: 0,179 - mask 0x1
In order to reduce the data formats, consecutive points that are close to each other are encoded using 6-bit X/Y deltas. Points that are further apart are stored as full 16-bit positions. The mask value is the XOR of the colour on the left versus the right side of the line.
Decoding scene data
The scene data decoding needs to strike a balance between small on-disk footprint and high decoding performance. In order to minimize the on-disk footprint, we store most data as bit-streams rather than byte/word sequences. In order to maximize decoding performance, we separate out data into different streams, so that each stream only contains values of one specific bit-length.
Since each stream only contains values of one given bit length, we can perform bulk decoding of tricky formats (in our case, 3-bit and 6-bit streams) before the individual values are needed. Bulk decoding of those formats eliminates a lot of shifting and conditional logic.
Here is an example of how we decode eight 3-bit values into 16-bit values:
DECODE8 MACRO fc_mask,temp0_cleared_upperbytes,temp1,temp2 ; fc_mask - contains $fc in lowest bytes ; temp0_cleared_upperbytes - contains $000000 in top 3 bytes ; Read 3 bytes, output 8 entries ; a2 - input stream ; a3+16 - lookup table for a2a1a0b2b1b0---- -> word with a, word with b ; a3 - lookup table for c2c1c0-- -> word with c ; a4 - lookup table for d2d1d0e2e1e0---- -> word with d, word with e ; a5 - lookup table for f1f0g2g1g0h2h1h0f2-- -> word with f ; a6 - lookup table for f1f0g2g1g0h2h1h0---- -> word with g, word with h moveq #0,\3 move.b (a2)+,\3 ; Fetch %a2a1a0b2b1b0c2c1 move.l \3,\4 and.b \1,\3 ; %a2a1a0b2b1b0---- move.l Lookup_AB-Lookup_C(a3,\3.l),(a1)+ ; Lookup a,b eor.b \3,\4 move.b (a2)+,\2 ; Fetch %c0d2d1d0e2e1e0f2 add.b \2,\2 ; %d2d1d0e2e1e0f2-- addx.b \4,\4 ; %c2c1c0 add.b \4,\4 ; %c2c1c0-- move.w (a3,\4.l),(a1)+ ; Lookup c moveq #0,\3 move.b (a2)+,\3 ; Fetch %f1f0g2g1g0h2h1h0 move.l \2,\4 ; %d2d1d0e2e1e0f2-- and.b \1,\2 ; %d2d1d0e2e1e0---- eor.b \2,\4 ; %f2-- move.l (a4,\2.l),(a1)+ ; Lookup d,e add.w \3,\3 ; %f1f0g2g1g0h2h1h0-- add.w \3,\3 ; %f1f0g2g1g0h2h1h0---- or.w \3,\4 ; %f1f0g2g1g0h2h1h0f2-- move.w (a5,\4.l),(a1)+ ; Lookup f move.l (a6,\3.l),(a1)+ ; Lookup g,h ENDM
At the end of the decoding we have a list of line segments with associated XOR values. This list feeds directly into the line rendering.
Line rendering can be sped up by reducing the total number of lines processed, reducing the per-line setup cost, and reducing the per-pixel overhead. We settled on rendering lines to all affected bitplanes at the same time; it reduces both per-pixel overhead and per-line setup cost.
This is the innerloop for a line that is to be rendered to bitplane 1 and 3:
REPT 179 bchg d2,(a0,d0.w) ; draw pixel in bpl1 bchg d2,(a2,d0.w) ; draw pixel in bpl3 addx.l d1,d0 ; advance byte-step and step down one line addx.l d3,d2 ; advance bit-step ENDR bchg d2,(a0,d0.w) ; draw pixel to bpl1 bchg d2,(a2,d0.w) ; draw pixel to bpl3
The line rendering uses two DDA steppers - one for “current byte” and one for “current bit within current byte”. The dual DDAs remove the need for per-pixel shifting and masking. It works as long as both DDAs have exactly the same precision when stepping (so the bit-step DDA may need to have its lowermost bits masked out during initialization).
Back to the packer
Once we had decided on the rendering method, we added metrics to the packer: how many cycles for per-pixel rendering to a single bitplane, how many cycles for per-pixel rendering to two bitplanes, how many cycles for line setup etc. We then transformed the data to minimize the metrics. Permuting the palette for each frame, in particular, is done with the intention to minimize the total number of cycles spent in per-pixel processing in the player.
Discarded and untested methods
We have tried having pre-generated code segments for drawing all up-to-16-pixel long segments. We scrapped that because the pre-generate code ate lots of precious memory while only giving a minor speed boost. We have also tried using rather inaccurate interval-halving when computing pixel locations for lines covering a small number of lines vertically. We scrapped that as well because the reduced per-line overhead was offset by the increased per-pixel overhead.
One thing that could have helped, is drawing lines with both CPU and blitter (alternating according to some set of rules). We did not try that since it would be quite complex to make it work without performance stalls and small pixel glitches. Instead, we chose to optimize our content further to make it all run at 25fps.